Are you getting tired of the high cost of printing? You’re not alone. Many consumers are up in arms. For example, they believe paying $22 per ounce for printer ink and $150 to $300 (or more) for a toner cartridge is way too much.

Most of the major printer manufacturers have adopted the same marketing model as the razor blade, TiVo and cell phone industry. Simply stated, they sell you the printer for cost or less in order to sell you printer ink and toner cartridges at huge markups. In many instances, they charge seven to ten times what it costs to manufacture these products.

In addition, these major companies spend thousands of dollars trying to convince you to purchase only their products. They strongly criticize printer ink and toner cartridges offered by third party companies. However, did you know that many of these major companies are now selling their own recycled cartridges… and you’re still paying full retail price for them! As someone once said, to get a real education, read the fine print on the label.

With the advent of online marketing, consumer have more choices than ever. There are a large number of reputable companies that sell printer ink and toner cartridges at significant savings. It is very common to save 50-85% when purchasing your printer supplies. In addition to substantial savings, you’ll get a money back guarantee and your order is normally shipped the same day.

Ok, here’s ten ways (plus 1) to save on printer ink and toner cartridges:

1. Purchase a compatible inkjet cartridge. These are cartridges made from new parts and manufactured to meet or exceed the OEM specifications for you exact printer.

2. Purchase a remanufactured inkjet cartridge. Third party companies collect empty printer ink cartridges. They refill them with ink and test them vigorously to make sure you get exactly the quality and quantity you expect from your inkjet cartridge.

3. Purchase an ink refill kit. You’ll get step-by-step instructions, the tools and printer ink you

need to refill your ink cartridge in just a few minutes. On the average, you can refill an inkjet cartridge ten times.

4. Your inkjet cartridge will eventually wear out. Instead of purchasing a brand name cartridge, purchase a compatible or remanufactured cartridge. Then, when compatible cartridge is empty, refill it with printer ink just as you did your original.

5. When you’re printing, always use draft mode until you’re ready for your final print.

6. Whenever possible, select black and white print. If you’re final product is to be in color, your draft can be done in black and white until you’ve double-checked everything. Then, print your final copies in color.

7. Purchase a compatible toner cartridge. Third party companies make these toner cartridges from brand new parts. They are manufactured to be equal to or better than your original toner cartridge.

8. Purchase a remanufactured cartridge. Many companies collect empty toner cartridges. They empty any toner waste and then refill the cartridge. They quality check the drum and other parts of the cartridge to insure maximum performance for the consumer.

9. Purchase a toner refill kit. These kits include the tools and instructions necessary to refill your own toner cartridge. On the average, you can refill a toner cartridge about three times.

10. When you toner cartridge is not producing the quality of print you expect, check to see if you can replace the drum, instead of the entire cartridge. This will keep money in your pocket.

11. Purchase multiple ink and toner cartridges if you can. You will save substantially over the already discounted cost, plus you will probably get Free shipping.

By ordering your printer ink, toner or ink cartridge online, you’ll experience the best service, the best warranty, and the best products available, for all your printing needs.

About The Author

Larry Andrew is an educational consultant, author and publisher of Purchasing printer ink, toner and inkjet cartridges on line should be fast, convenient and cost-effective.


If you’ve been looking to upgrade your computer video card you’ve probably heard a great deal about PCI Express and SLI. Don’t run out and buy a new computer just yet and take that AGP motherboard you just threw away out of the trash. The truth is you can probably make some simple upgrades to your current computer to get a couple more years of gaming out of it. Of course if you have an extremely slow processor and/or less than an 8x AGP motherboard, you will need to do more than upgrade your graphics card. However, in most cases people’s computers are only a couple of years old and really have plenty of processing power.

The three things to look at are your memory, motherboard, and video card. To get the most out of the more recent games you want to have at least 1GB of RAM. This is a very simple upgrade and only takes a couple of minutes. For more information on upgrading your memory you can visit my website. Second, check to be sure your AGP slot on your current motherboard is 8x. If your

memory and motherboard meet these standards you’re in luck. A new video card will probably float you for at least another year, likely two if you get a top of the line card. The thing to remember is that PCI Express is new technology and not nearly as widespread as AGP is. Game companies want to make as much money as possible from each game. For this reason, they will try to make the games play well on the widest array of platforms. When you think about it like this, it is easy to see how AGP will be useful for a while longer. For more information on AGP video cards visit the Video Card review section of my website.

If your motherboard isn’t up to par or your processor is outdated it is time for an upgrade. If you are a do-it-yourselfer like I am, you should look into building your own computer. It’s not as difficult as you might think and can save you a good deal of money.

Nathan Holsing is the editor of a website about building and upgrading computers.


The average home computer user definitely does not need a laser printer. Sure laser printer prices have fallen considerably in the last couple of years. But have you look at the cost of laser toner? The average laser toner cartridge sells for over $100. The cost of replacement ink can really ad up on you. Cost of ink should not be the only factor that deters you from buying this kind of printer though.

Unless you are printing hundreds of pages each day you really don’t need a laser printer. Today’s inkjet printers have incredible print resolution, are very affordable, and replacement ink cartridges do not cost a lot. If it’s print quality that you’re concerned about, consider that you can’t even tell the difference between a laser printout and an inkjet printout.

Another thing to consider is the size of the printer. Generally laser printers dwarf the smaller inkjet printer.

So if you’re looking for something compact, then a laser printer is definitely not right for you. It’s not going to fit on your desk at home.

If print speed is one of your main concerns, than a laser printer might be right for you. Most laser printers can print many more pages per minute than the average inkjet printer. The last consideration should be maintenance and or replacement costs. The parts used in laser printers are more expensive than those used in inkjet printers. So if something breaks, it going to cost a bundle to fix. I generally look at inkjet printers as easily replaced. Because they are so inexpensive to begin with, if something breaks, you can just start all over with a new printer.

Bill Smith is an expert on printers and ink cartridges. Visit his site,, for additional information about printers.


Computer memory is called Random Access Memory (RAM). The information stored in RAM can be accessed randomly, rather than sequentially. This means that data can be found in any location at the same rate of speed. Other storage media, such as CD-Rom and hard drives, must wait while the drive spins to the correct location before the data can be accessed.

Computer memory is simply a storage area for the program code and the data that program uses. Computer programs use RAM to write and retrieve information, allowing for fast data retrieval and manipulation.

How Much RAM is Enough?

Simply stated, the answer is, as much as possible. Keep in mind, though, once you’ve reached a certain upper limit, which is determined by the computer program(s) used, investment in more memory will see a diminished return.

Adding more memory is one of the best ways to maximize computer performance. If you compare 2 identical computer systems, the one with the most memory will over-all be the faster. More RAM allows the computer to place more program instructions into memory, relying less on the slower hard drive.

Think of 512 Megabytes (MB) as the base standard for a modern computer. With that you can multi-task (run several applications concurrently). For instance, you can check email and download MP3s, without noticeable sluggishness.

Some applications, however, are more memory-hungry than others. Graphics programs, for example, are notoriously greedy. Memory needs are further exagerated by the operating system used. Microsoft Windows is far more demanding than, say, Linux. Currently, most PCs use Windows, though.

Should you notice your computer slowing down, consider adding more memory. Before committing to that option, however, try de-fragmenting your hard drive with

a utility (program) designed for that sole purpose. A fragmented hard drive is a common cause of stalled computer performance.

Types of RAM

Right now DDR SDRAM is the most popular memory module. DDR stands for Double Data Rate, which means that the memory can be accessed twice per clock-cycle. SDRAM, the acronym for Synchronous Data Random Access Memory, has been the standard for memory modules for nearly a decade.

To add memory to your computer, you must install modules with the correct contact layout. Before purchasing new memory, you must know which type your motherboard will accept. The most common form factors are 168 pin, 184 pin and 200 pin.

You’ll also need to know whether there are slots available on your motherboard. If all the slots are already in use, you’ll have to replace 1 or all of the current modules with higher capacity ones. If there is at least 1 free slot, you can simply buy a new memory module and insert it in the empty slot.

A word of caution: whereas some motherboards can accept either SDRAM or DDR SDRAM, the 2 types cannot be mixed. You must decide on 1 or the other. Check the motherboard manual first to determine which kind of memory your computer requires.

And finally, when you are ready to install your brand new memory module, make sure of 2 things: the power is off (for your safety) and you are electrically grounded (for your computer’s safety).

Ron King is a full-time researcher, writer, and web developer. Visit to learn more about this fascinating subject.

Copyright 2005 Ron King. This article may be reprinted if the resource box is left intact.


All picture tubes, whether monochrome or color type are identified by a specific code consisting of numbers and letters. The codes are different from each other because different tubes have different characteristics.

For example, a certain monitor colour picture tube may have the designation, M34AFA63X03 that can breakdown into 6 parts: M/34/AFA/63/X/03

Part 1: Application

Computer monitor tubes start with the letter “M” while for a TV picture tube, it start with “A”.

Part 2: Screen diagonal measure in centimeters (cm)

The “34” means the diagonal viewing measure is a minimum of 34cm which refers to 14” tube, 36cm is 15”, 41cm is 17” and so on.

Part 3: Family code

The three letters “AFA” designate a family of tubes that have similar physical and electrical characteristic. These letters are assigned alphabetically beginning with “AAA”, followed by “AAB”,“AAC” etc.

Part 4: Family number

The number 63 shows a specific tube within the family code. A different number is assigned to tubes within the same family that have different neck diameters,

for example a single digit would be a monochrome tube, but this two-digit number shows it is colour.

Part 5: Phosphor Type

The fifth symbol gives the phosphor designation. The letter X here corresponds to P22 for colour picture tubes. Colour monitor tubes can have any other single letter (excluding I, O, or W) to designate other phosphor type for various applications. For monochrome pictures, the phosphor symbol is WW, corresponding to P4. Monochrome monitor tubes also can use WW or some other two-letter combination (excluding I and O).

Part 6: Integral neck components

The sixth symbol is assigned only for tubes having integral neck components, such as the deflection yoke. The specs are only apply to a particular tube manufacturer. The primary consideration here is winding inductance. The yoke coils have different sensitivity i.e. deflection per Amp in both horizontal and vertical.

Jestine Yong is a electronic repairer and writer. For more information about electronic repair please visit his website at


What is EEPROM ?

On 05/12/2012, in Computer hardware information, by admin

EEPROM stands for Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory and also referred to as E²PROM. As the name suggest, an EEPROM can be both erased and programmed with electrical pulses. Since it can be both electrically written into and electrically erased, the EEPROM can be rapidly programmed and erased in circuit for reprogramming without removing them from the circuit board.

EEPROM is also called a non-volatile memory because when power is turned off the stored data in the EEPROM will not be erased or intact. New EEPROM have no data in it and usually have to program with a programmer before it can be use. Information stored in this type of memory can be retained for many years without a steady power supply.

What is the function of EEPROM?EEPROMs are used to store user programmable information such as: -

• VCR programming information

• CD programming information

• Digital satellite receiver control data

• User information on various consumer products

EEPROM in monitor performs two functions:

• When a monitor is switch on it will copies all data or information from the EEPROM to the microprocessor. For example, the EEPROM will let the microprocessor know the frequencies at which the monitor is going to operate.

• The EEPROM is used to store the current settings of the monitor. The settings of the monitor will not be erased even when the monitor is turned off. Anytime a change is made in the monitor settings, the microprocessor updates the setting in the EEPROM. When the monitor is turn on again, the

stored settings are used to set up the monitor for operation.

What are the symptoms if the MONITOR or TV’s EEPROM data is corrupted or damaged?

• No high voltage (no display).

• Horizontal or vertical frequencies run.

• Cannot save (store) current setting.

• Certain control functions like sound, brightness and contrast control does not functioning.

• On Screen Display (OSD) does not function or the OSD have a corrupted display.

• High voltage shut down (EEPROM set the horizontal frequency way too low or twice the line frequency perhaps leading to failure of the horizontal output transistor (HOT)).

What is an EEPROM programmer or copier?

EEPROM seldom fail, they just lose or have their memory (data) corrupted may be due to high voltage and static discharge from a monitor. Once reprogrammed they are as good as new. As mentioned earlier, new EEPROMs are blank and need information or data to be loaded in order for it to functions. The job of copying the data into an EEPROM is done by a programmer or a copier. Programmers comes in all shapes and sizes. You can copy these devices for repair replacement only. You cannot copy them for resale without a letter of approved from the vendor who produced them. There is quite a number of companies selling EEPROM programmer:

Typical EEPROM part no:

24C02, 24C04, 24C08 etc

24C325, 24C645AT17C65, AT17C128 etc

93C06, 93C46, 93C56, 93C66 etc

25010, 25020, 25040 etc

Jestine Yong is a electronic repairer and writer. For more information about electronic repair please visit his website at


While planning for your wireless network you might be asking what is the difference between a router and an access point. You need to think of a router as more of a server because it performs many functions like a server. An access point only provides a portal for wireless client to connect to your existing LAN.

Routers can perform many functions. Routers can connect many different WLANs together acting like a traffic cop. Routers also act as a DHCP server. A DHCP server assigns dynamic IP address to your computer every time your computer starts up. If you don’t have a DHCP server then you will have to assign each computer on your network a permanent IP address.

As I have said before your router can also act like a traffic cop. You can use a router to perform port forwarding to certain computers on your LAN. For example you can direct all internet traffic looking for your game server’s port number to a specific computer on your LAN.

The ability to connect multiple computers to the internet is one of the main features of a router. The router is assigned one WAN IP address from your ISP. This IP address is called a public IP address that everyone on the internet can see. Because you have multiple computers connected to your router the router uses a protocol called NAT {Network address translation} NAT will assign the computers that are behind your routers IP address, private IP addresses. NAT acts as

a firewall because computers on the internet cannot in theory even see your computers. They will only see the IP address of your router. NAT does block traffic from reaching your computers but it will not block Trojans from going out to the internet. That is why I do recommend installing a firewall on your LAN computers.

The role of an access point on a LAN is to give the wireless user a door way to enter. The more people that enter the door at the same time the slower they will go. 802.11b access points say they will give you a through put rate of 11mps but the actual rate is around 5MPS. 802.11g has a rating of 54mbps with an actual through put of 20mbps. The access points do have most of the same security features as a router such as WEP, WPA, 8021x and TKPI but they will not have the traffic cop functions like a router. Also the access points will not have NAT which would add an unnecessary layer to your network. To keep it simple access points just simulate plugging in your laptop to a port in the wall and that’s it.A router is used on the border of you network to act as a traffic cop deciding who can come in and blocking those you want to keep out.

Eric “The Wireless Ninja” Meyer is an expert in Wireless Networking. You can view other Wireless Networking articles at


If, for some reason, you can’t get an exact replacement for the transistor that you want to replace, you can refer to one of the transistor substitution guides or book, and try to identify a “near replacement”. Beware, however. A substitution guide will sometimes list a replacement for your part, even though the two parts are not very similar. The most commonly used transistor substitution guides is the Philips ECG semiconductors Master Replacement Guide. Selecting the right transistor parameters or specifications for the equipment you repair will avoid callbacks from customers. Callbacks or repeated repairs due to wrong transistor substitution will cost you extra money and a waste of time.

Some important transistor parameters are:

Maximum collector-to-base voltage (VCBO) – The replacement part should have a VCBO rating equal to or higher than the original.

Maximum collector-to-emitter voltage (VCEO) – The replacement part should have a VCEO rating equal to or higher than the original.

Maximum emitter-to-base voltage (VEBO) – The replacement part should have a VEBO rating equal to or greater than the original.

Maximum collector current (IC) – The replacement part should be able to handle as much (or more) collector current as the original.

Power dissipation (PD Watts) – The replacement part should be able to dissipate as

much (or more) power as the original part.

Gain (hFE) – The replacement should have a gain equal to or better than the original and it should be as close to the original specification as possible.

Gain-bandwidth (fT) – the replacement should have a transition frequency equal to or faster than the original and it should be as close to the original specification as possible.

Below is a table of application requirement and important specification that you can use for guidelines when comes to transistor substitution.

Application Requirement and Important Specifications

1. General purpose low level amplifier and switching transistors. Spec- hFE, IC (max), fT, VCEO

2. Power switching applications. Spec- VCEO, VCBO, hFE, IC (max), PD (max)

3. Low level IF/RF amplification. Spec- IC (max), fT, VCEO

4. Audio amplification. Spec- IC (max), PD (max), hFE, VCEO

5. High voltage transistors. Spec- VCEO, VCBO, IC (max), fT

Remember, the replacement transistor should not run hot and if problem still persist, try another replacement number or get the original number if possible. Do not overlook that the surrounding components also may caused the transistor to run hot even if original number is used.

Jestine Yong is a electronic repairer and writer. For more information about electronic repair please visit his website at


Before you purchase a printer you need to consider many factors, things like, whether you want a color or monochrome printer, do you want to print text or images. Printers are a long term investment and you’d be wise to weigh many factors before making the right choice.

Laser printers can draw crisper lines than inkjets. Laser Printers cost less than inkjets in the long run. They are also the perfect choice if you want to print large documents. Ideally, from running cost and maintenance perspective, they are the perfect choice for anything above home office. One aspect that laser printers are poor at is when it comes to printing photos. Laser printers are best suited for printing text because of their ability to store device fonts.

Laser printers have the capability of printing on a wide variety of media types. They are the fastest type of printers and can handle huge volumes of input, and also, deliver large volumes of output.

Whether you want to go for a monochrome or color printer, it’s a choice which you need to be making carefully. Color printers can be too expensive to maintain and use. Also, don’t get attracted by few color printouts that you see from the printer. Checkout the price it takes to replace the cartridges. Also, make sure there is a separate black cartridge in the printer, as this saves color ink and makes using color printers more


If the printer is to be used in an office, it is better to purchase a duplexing unit by shelling some extra money. The money you save in the form of paper, by allowing the users to duplex through the duplexing option – via the driver interface, will be more than the initial cost, if you were to go without a duplexing unit. You may want to checkout the connectivity options and the ability to upgrade the connectivity. If you plan to use multiple media types, you may want to go for a printer with multiple drawers.

A short checklist when choosing laser printers:-

1) Do you want to print lots of text documentation?

2) Do you want a very fast printer?

3) Are you going to use the printer in the office?

4) How many media types do you think you would be using – most of the time?

5) Are you going to use the printer to print text rather than photos?

6) Do you want color printouts and don’t mind high running costs?

If you answered no to all of the above, a Laser printer is not what you need.If you answered yes to most of the them except (6), a mono laser printer with add-ons is your choice.

If you answered yes to all of them, the color laser printer with add-ons is what you are looking for.

John Gibb manages site dedicated to computers and printers.


Home networks are becoming more common. People want to be able to share a single broadband Internet connection to several computers in the house. There are many different devices that you can use to make up your home network. If you have never heard network terminology device names like router, hub, etc may seem confusing.

The purpose of most of these devices are to control how the network passes around information. This information is sent in the form of “packets”. I will refer to the term packet several times in this article. It simply means the data that the network is transporting. I will now explain the purpose of the major components of a home network.

What is a Hub

A hub is a device that has several Ethernet ports on the back of the device. One of these ports will likely be labeled “Uplink”. This port allows you to connect multiple hubs together, if you run out of ports on your hub. If you do not have an uplink port on your hub, the hub can not be easily extended if you run out of ports.

A hub is a device that attaches multiple computers on an Ethernet network. If you have a number different computers that you want to connect together, you could connect each to the hub. Any packet that is sent out by any computer on the network will immediately be transmitted to the other computers. Each computer will determine if the packet was really intended for it, and filter out packets that were intended for other computers.

You really should not use a hub in a modern home network. You should always use a switch in place of a hub. Switches will be discussed in the next section.

What is a Switch

A switch is a device that has several Ethernet ports on the back of the device. One of these ports will likely be labeled “Uplink”. This port allows you to connect multiple switches together, if you run out of ports on your switch. If you do not have an uplink port on your switch, the switch can not be easily extended if you run out of ports.

A switch serves the same function as a hub. It allows you to connect multiple computers together, so that they can exchange packets. However, a switch is much more efficient than a hub. A switch will only send Ethernet packets to the computer that the packet was intended for. Because of this you should always use a switch in place of a hub.

What is a Router

A router is a device that has several Ethernet ports on the back of the device. One of the connectors will be labeled WAN. You should connect the WAN port to the Ethernet connection on a broadband source, such as a cable or DSL modem. The other ports on the router can be connected other computers or switches/hubs that will share the WAN connection.

Routers allow you to share your broadband connection with multiple computers in your house. Rather than connecting your computer directly into your cable or DSL modem you connect the router to the cable or DSL modem. Now any computer

that you connect to the router will have access to the Internet.

If you run out of ports on your router you can always connect an additional switch to the router. To connect a switch to a router simply connect the switch’s “uplink” port to one of the routers Ethernet ports. Of course, don’t connect to the router’s WAN port. The WAN port should only be connected to something such as a cable or DSL router.

Some routers come with additional features installed. Most routers also include a firewall. Firewalls are discussed in the next section. Some routers will also include a wireless access point (WAP). The WAP allows you to use wireless devices, such as wireless laptops, with the Internet.

What is a Firewall

A firewall controls traffic flow between your network and the Internet. A firewall can be either hardware or software. Windows XP SP2 or higher includes a software firewall. A hardware firewall is included with most routers.

A firewall is a very good idea. It can protect you from inbound virus attempts. By inbound virus attempt I mean other computers that will connect to your computer and attempt to infect your computer. You do not want to run a computer directly connected to the Internet, without a firewall. There are just too many other computers out there that can connect and infect you without you even noticing.

What is a Network Attached Storage (NAS)

A network attached storage device is s device that allows a hard drive to be shared across the network. This hard drive is NOT attached to any of your computers. It is simply made available by the NAS. This can be a convent way to add a hard drive that can be accessed by several computers on your network. The other common way to add a network hard drive is to simply share a folder on one of your computers. However, with the NAS, you do not need to keep one of your computers on at all times.

There are two types of NAS commonly available. The first type comes with a build in hard drive. The second accepts a USB or Firewire external hard drive. The advantage to using a USB or Firewire hard drive is that you can upgrade the hard drive if it ever were to become too small.

What is a Print Server

Just like you can buy a device to allow you to share a hard drive, you can do the same with a printer. A print server connects directly to your printer. Your printer is then shared to all of your computers on the network. This is convent because you do not need to leave the printer hooked to a computer, which must be turned on to print.


As you can see there are many different components. Perhaps the final component that I have yet to mention is the cable. These components are connected together with CAT5 Ethernet cable.

You are now ready to pick out the components for your home network!

Jeff Heaton is author, consultant and college instructor. Jeff maintains the “Heaton Research” website that contains many Java tutorials and other computer programming information.

普人特福的博客cnzz&51la for wordpress,cnzz for wordpress,51la for wordpress